Renowned flag expert Howard Madaus and Dr. Richard Zeitlin, Director of the Wisconsin Veterans Museum, give an excellent introduction to the role of battle flags during the Civil War:

Madaus, Howard Michael and Richard H. Zeitlin. The Flags of the Iron Brigade. Madison: 1997.

3 CWV, Vol 1 pp.238-240

4 U.S. War Department, The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies (Washington 1880-1901), Series 1, Vol. 19, Pt. 1, P. 255

5 Rufus R. Dawes, Service with the Sixth Wisconsin Volunteers (Marietta, Ohio, 1890), 91.

6 U.S. War Department, U.S. Infantry Tactics, for the Instruction, Exercise, and Maneuvers of the United States Infantry, Including Infantry of the Line, Light Infantry, and Riflemen... (Philadelphia, 1861), 10-11.