The Tenth Wisconsin Infantry was organized at Camp Holton, Milwaukee, WI, and mustered into the service of the United States on October 14, 1861. It left the state November 9, and arrived at Louisville, KY, November 11, where it was sent to guard the line of the Louisville & Nashville Railway. The Tenth engaged in this service until February 1862, when the regiment participated in the general southern movement of the Union forces which reached south as far as Huntsville, AL. Shortly thereafter Union forces were compelled to retrace their steps north through Middle Tennessee and Kentucky until the battle at Chaplin Hills or Perryville, KY, October 8, 1862, in which the Tenth partcipated. This was followed by another march southward and the hostile armies again engaged in battle at Stone's River or Murfreesboro, TN, December 30-31, 1862 to January 1, 1863. After this engagement the Tenth was assigned to duty guarding railways until the latter part of June, and joined with the forces under Gen. Rosecrans in the Tullahoma Campaign June 23 to July 7, 1863, a part of the Army of the Cumberland. This was followed by the advance on Chattanooga and the hostile forces again met at Chickamaugua, GA, September 19-20, 1863. A little later in the year, the Tenth participated in the battle of Missionary Ridge November 25, 1863, and from February 22 to 27, 1864 participated in the demonstration on Tunnel Hill and Buzzard Roost,GA.
On May 24th the Tenth again rejoined its division and as a part of the Fourteenth Army Corps took part in the Atlanta Campaign, participating in the Battle of Dallas, GA, May 13, 1864, at and around Kenesaw Mountain June 10 to July 3, 1864, and Peach Tree Creek July 20, 1864. In October the time for which the regiment had enlisted expired, those recruits whose terms had not expired were transferred to the Twenty-first Infantry. On October 16th, the Tenth left Marietta, GA for Wisconsin, reaching Milwaukee on the 25th and was mustered out and disbanded.